2015 Chinese GP Tech Highlights

Note: Due to a lack of time (as explained in my Announcements 5 blog post) most of this has been copied off my analysis piece for Richland F1, with some added extras that I worth noting.

Shanghai is a bit of a tricky track to set the car up for as the corners are predominantly medium speed with long traction zones (especially the large banked turn onto the huge back straight), but there are plenty of straights to make up time on.

It is for these reasons that we tend to see a compromised aerodynamic package which will later be seen in races such as Canada, where the trade-off between downforce and top speed is constantly being assessed throughout the weekend.

The lengthy corners also put a focus on front tyre life, particularly the front left, so you can’t take too much wing off the car or else you risk putting the tyres in jeopardy. Even if you have slightly too little downforce the tyres won’t stay in their optimum temperature because the straights cool them down before the driver even reaches the braking zone – you could say that it is one of the toughest rounds of the year regarding setup.

To solve these problems teams bring upgrades, which are ideally more efficient at producing downforce than the outgoing component.


As promised by Mercedes, an array of new parts made their way onto the W06 right from FP1 after being beaten by Ferrari two weeks earlier.

W06 FW China

Front wing development has stabilised slightly over the past season but this new wing has once more upped the game by introducing an even more aggressive outboard region concept.

The elements – which remain at a total of six – arch aggressively at the extremities of the wing to form two distinctive sections: the inboard and outboard. The inboard is composed of the main plane which is split into two planes, and the upper two flaps and these are responsible for creating the Y250 vortex and controlling airflow around the front suspensions members.

Outboard, Mercedes have further expanded on the vortex tunnel design by almost isolating it entirely from the rest of the wing. The leading edge of the tunnel is shaped such that the air curls over on itself and accelerates. This coupled with the introduction of higher pressure flow through the slot gaps on the upper surface of the wing coils up the air to form a powerful vortex that is shed around the front tyre. This generates a huge amount of downforce and helps the endplates push flow around the front tyre too – the outwash effect.

These vortices tend to break up once they have come around the tyre as the turbulent wake behind the rotating wheel mixes with it and disperses. Contrary to popular belief these vortices never reach the Coke-bottle section of the car – the designers want to keep this area full of clean laminar flow to work the top of the diffuser, which is why we see the large vanes the hang off the shoulder of the sidepods to protect air passing through the ‘pod’s undercut.

Additionally, more tiny vortex generators on the individual planes of the wing were also evident. Again, this is to help air pass through the slot gaps and aid how the main vortex in the tunnel forms.

Mated with the new wing was an updated pair of front brake ducts. The previous large vane that hung off the guide plane of the duct has been deleted in favour of a more fluid-looking flick-shaped vane that branches neatly from the leading edge of the duct. This will work more favourably with the updated front wing.

As mentioned above, top speed is also important in China so a revised rear wing was also brought in. The wing has a slightly lower angle of attach and the wing tips cut triangularly to reduce drag.

Red Bull

Renault’s power deficit was always going to be more evident here than any other track so far in 2015 so Red Bull had a number of rear wing options to play with. A lower angle of attack version was used by both drivers during qualifying and the race, both of which feature their more intricate endplate design with the extended slot along the leading edge.

On the front wing, the Milton Keynes outfit have now officially departed with their long-standing endplate design in favour for a Mercedes-style solution, featuring a single fence with a small flick at the trailing edge to entice flow around the front tyre.

However the most important change Red Bull have made so far this year is returning to Brembo discs and calipers from China onwards, swapping out the Hitcos used since winter testing. The team opted to use Hitco at the start of the year following Sebastian Vettel’s feedback before he headed off to Ferrari, but cooling issues have resulted in them being ditched in favour of what they has last year.

The Brembos work like no other brake on the grid – they are not the most powerful but they are extremely consistent across the braking phase. However they also require less cooling inlets and are generally easier to manage than most of the other manufacturers out there, which is why we saw the issues the team had in Malaysia.

Swapping back to another brake supplier is pretty difficult, though. Daniel Ricciardo was having visible difficulty to stop the car during the race, which can be put down to the team not finding the sweet spot between the brake bias and the pressure versus the harvesting capabilities of the MGU-K. It’s more of a setup issue than an inherent car problem, so expect it to be addressed soon.


C34 FW

Like Mercedes, Sauber also had a front wing/front brake duct update. The new wing is a quite the departure from its predecessor as the promising C34 begins to undergo significant development.

Designed during early 2015, this wing was meant to be introduced in Bahrain but it was fast-tracked thanks to funds coming through quicker than expected.

Whilst the cascade winglet remains very much the same as the last edition, the accompanying ‘r’ vane has been moved closer with a small aerofoil join sandwiched between them.

The wing itself has been upgraded from four to five elements, with a more conventional divide between the inboard and outboard sections similar to that of Mercedes. Metal clips have been formed into the carbon fibre at the inboard region to stiffen up the wing as it undergoes load, allowing for a more consistent formation of the Y250 vortex across a range of speeds.

It is worth noting that the flap adjuster lies on the inboard section. More commonly this housing is placed on the divide between the two regions as this is more aero neutral. However keeping the outboard segment cleaner can certainly benefit the overall outwash effect of the wing and is also slightly more efficient.


Some subtle changes were made to the Lotus front end, minutely changing the aerostructures to suit components downstream.

The nose pylons were extended downwards at their base, removing the transitional step between the pylon itself and the wing’s mounting bracket to form a smooth profile for air to pass over.

This was accompanied by a small adjustment to the inboard flap section that is responsible for controlling the Y250 vortex. These were extended further inwards and curled down towards the main plane in a similar fashion to those on the Mercedes. However this this wing configuration was not raced on Sunday although expect it to turn up in Bahrain this weekend.


For all the raving about Williams’ front wing during the weekend, it appears as if it was just a minute alteration to the under-wing turning vanes that was the only visible sight of anything new.

But do not let that fool you so quickly. So much work is done through the layup of carbon fibre that has a dramatic effect on how the wing performs across all air speeds. Williams are one team in particular who are ‘bending’ the letter of law with some extremely flexible wing flaps, as evident on the onboard nose camera shot. Getting the wing to flex in a desired manner can be worth multiple tenths of a second per lap when working correctly. Expect this to be an underlying feature of the 2015 season as the designers run out of areas to play with.

Announcements 5…

I have been generating content for this blog for just over two years now and I have already gathered a significant following. I have enjoyed, and still do enjoy, writing on here and expressing my knowledge (which increases all the time) of engineering in motorsport and I hope you also like my content.

However lately I have had to take a bit of back seat from the blog and F1 in general. You may have noticed I’ve been less active on social media as well.

I still love the sport and the technical side always excites me but I am struggling to find time to juggle a social life, earning a bit of income to pay for that social life, studying at degree level and – most importantly – finding enjoyment out of all of these things.

This all means that I have much less time to write on here. This is also due to an underlying feeling of a lack of motivation at the moment – we all go through it and hopefully I’ll be fired up again fully in the near future.

I continue to religiously watch all the races (as I have done since 2007) because at the end of the day I fell in love with F1 as a fan, not as a journalist. The same applies to all the good journalists out there because they apply emotion to their writing that others simply can’t translate.

It’s gutting because I don’t like not posting on here, I promise you that! My blog is my pride and joy and it has propelled me to places I never thought were possible in motorsport journalism and we’re just scratching the surface…

Ultimately my ambition is for other people to be writing about what I have designed on the cars and to reach that I have to prioritise things. So this is just an announcement to say that there will be less on here than normal for now as I get on top of things.

I have promised an LMP1 car comparison piece between Audi’s 2015 R18 e-tron quattro and Nissan’s intriguing GT-R LM NISMO, so I’ll get that sorted soon! But for the time being it might just be Technical Highlights posts only, plus a bit extra for Richland F1 as they are fantastic website heading in a strong direction.

I hope you appreciate this decision.


Silverstone Single Seater Driving Experience


Not a tech related post but I thought I’d share this with you.

As some of you may know, my parents gave me a single seater driving experience at Silverstone for my 18th birthday, all the way back in 2013! Unfortunately – thanks to the miserable British weather about 90% of the time – it took me three attempts to complete the damn thing: the previous two occasions had been called off due to excessive rainfall and poor visibility. Continue reading

2015 Malaysia GP Tech Highlights

Traditionally the Malaysian GP comes just one week after the opening round in Australia. However this year a two week gap has allowed teams to fine-tune their cooling packages ahead of what is one of, if not the most challenging places to race a Formula 1 car.

Impressively, most teams managed to retain a relatively tight rear end despite track temperatures peaking at 61.4 degrees Celsius. If we compare how open the bodywork was this time last year there is clear evidence that this year’s power units are another step forward in terms of efficiency. Closing up bodywork reduces drag and allows the aerodynamics to work at their maximum potential, rather than being disrupted by hot air vents and larger outlets. Continue reading

2015 Australian GP Tech Highlights

The opening round of the season in Melbourne produced few technical upgrades, although most of what was brought to the final test session was intended for the opening races of 2015. Whilst we can expect a few more bits for Malaysia, this Technical Highlights post runs through a couple of the larger developments from the teams from the final Barcelona test and the minor detail changes made for Australia. Continue reading

The Mercedes W05: How it dominated in 2014 – Part 2


Part 2 of mine and Matt Somerfield‘s eBook on how the Mercedes W05 dominated in 2014 is available to buy on the Google Play store for just over £4. It explains all the aerodynamic details of the (statistically) most successful F1 car to date and also runs over topics such as FRIC suspension (pictured above). Please purchase it – a lot of effort went into this part of the eBook so we would really appreciate your support.



McLaren MP4-30


The MP4-30 is very much a revolutionary car for McLaren. Make no mistake, with Honda coming back into Formula 1 as an exclusive supplier to the Woking-based squad, this is a big year for a team that have been busy putting the right people in the right places to succeed again. Aero-wise, Peter Prodromou’s Red Bull influence is already evident on their 2015 challenger and there are plenty of technical details to discuss around the power unit, too.

Starting at the front of the car and it is clear that the entire aerodynamic concept of the MP4-30 is miles from last year’s philosophy. This in turn sets up the rest of the car’s aero characteristics, so you can really see just how much effort has gone into this area to regain ground on the others. Continue reading