2015 Malaysia GP Tech Highlights

Traditionally the Malaysian GP comes just one week after the opening round in Australia. However this year a two week gap has allowed teams to fine-tune their cooling packages ahead of what is one of, if not the most challenging places to race a Formula 1 car.

Impressively, most teams managed to retain a relatively tight rear end despite track temperatures peaking at 61.4 degrees Celsius. If we compare how open the bodywork was this time last year there is clear evidence that this year’s power units are another step forward in terms of efficiency. Closing up bodywork reduces drag and allows the aerodynamics to work at their maximum potential, rather than being disrupted by hot air vents and larger outlets.

Ferrari

Ferrari were the most impressive at keeping their car cool without opening up bodywork and this can be put down to their neat radiator packaging and the power unit’s increased efficiency.

Normally the radiators are angled upwards around the car centreline (i.e. angled upwards when viewed from the side of the car), the degree of which depends on what the team want to do with the internal flow and how they want to shape the sidepods around them. The objective is to push as much air as possible through the core of the radiator without it losing much energy and creating boundary flow – this induces drag and doesn’t maximise the potential of the power unit.

Ferrari have done this and also opted to incline the radiators outward of the car centreline (i.e. angled upwards when viewed from the front/back of the car).

Angled rads

The above illustrations combines the two angles around their respective axis’ together. The advantage of this is that they can create a much nice shape to the shoulder of the sidepod – you will note that the SF15-T’s sidepods are quite rounded and reasonably undercut.

However the drawback is that the air entering the sidepod inlet has to turn slightly (rather than pass straight through) to reach the entire surface area of the radiator. Such is the shape of the inlet that boundary layer flow builds up as the air attempts to take the path of least resistance, thus reducing the cooling capacity of the radiators and generating unwanted drag.

To counter this Ferrari have small guide vanes ahead of the radiator to turn flow into the core. The back is lined with pairs of fins, too, which has been made out of a carbon fibre panel that can easily be removed for maintenance work. This significantly enhances the internal aerodynamics of the car, to such an extent that there was no need to open up the rear bodywork at all between Melbourne and Sepang.

Two small slots were made into the removable panel by the driver’s head/cockpit area, but nowhere near the array of gilled outlets we saw on the Mercedes-powered cars in particular.

Aside from cooling, a small revision was made to the front brake duct. A slot was introduced at the leading edge of the guide vane to condition flow around the front tyre/suspension area.

McLaren

As the McLaren-Honda begin to get to grips with their power unit, attention has been diverted slightly towards the chassis. A substantial aero update was brought to the MP4-30 for the weekend, including their own spin on the S-duct.

Unlike the other solutions we have seen over the past three years, McLaren’s splits the exit of the duct into two channels that pass out eitherside of the Pitot tube stack that towers above the chassis top. This is an effective design as the air being fed through the duct will be less turbulent as a result of the reduced blockage at the exit. The packaging of the duct within the front bulkhead is also very tidy, which will help the mechanics out when it comes to setup changes.

As a result of the new S-duct, the vanity panel that covers the abrupt change in chassis\nose height has been modified to accommodate the exit vent. The overall appearance of the chassis top is much smoother as a result so it appears as if the S-duct was always in the pipeline for the car at some stage.

MP4-30 sidepods

Work was also made around the sidepod inlet region. This area is numerous responsibilities: feeding the radiators with clean airflow, blocking front tyre wake from the sidepod’s undercut and dispatching the Y250 vortex (generated off the front wing) around the sides of the car.

Highlighted is a new conditioning vane. The crinkled leading edge has been replaced with a straight, vertical surface and the base of the vane has been moved inwards to meet with the bargeboard’s trailing edge. The bargeboards themselves have had some subtle detailing done to them at their lower edge, which is a trend across the grid this year.

Circled are the extensive changes to the floor, which now features a more up-to-date scrolled profile complete with Gurney flap on the top side to induce a greater pressure delta between the upper and lower surfaces. This generates vortices along the edge of the floor, preventing the low pressure beneath the car from leaking out and allowing a higher rake angle to produce more rear downforce.

Finally, a third vortex generator has been placed on top of the sidepod to encourage air down the sidepod towards the top of the diffuser.

Also worth noting is that McLaren have a blunted rear axle as well as on the front. Unlike the front axle, though, the rear is not being blown with air through the brake ducts. The reason for its flat face is so that the pit crew can use the same wheel gun at both the front and rear if necessary.

Toro Rosso

An impressive technical feature that went under the radar in Australia was Toro Rosso’s new rear wing pylon, which was evident again in Malaysia.

Instead of forming an inverted ‘Y’ shape around the exhaust, the carbon fibre pylon instead passes straight through the exhaust to meet the rear crash structure below. There must be a transition between the main carbon fibre pylon and (probably) a titanium support within the exhaust itself to resist the gases’ heat.

Clearly there is little performance loss in placing a form of blockage within the exhaust stream at the exit, which prompts the thought of whether Toro Rosso are able to do some neat rear wing flexing around the single pickup point with the rear crash structure, rather than the two wide-stanced pickups a Y-lon offers.

2015 Australian GP Tech Highlights

The opening round of the season in Melbourne produced few technical upgrades, although most of what was brought to the final test session was intended for the opening races of 2015. Whilst we can expect a few more bits for Malaysia, this Technical Highlights post runs through a couple of the larger developments from the teams from the final Barcelona test and the minor detail changes made for Australia.

Mercedes

Melbourne confirmed what we realistically knew was going to occur for this year – another season of dominance. The W06 looked better than every car out there even on Friday, when both drivers were struggling with the setup. Their advantage is to the tune of ~1.3s over a single lap and about 0.7s per lap in a race situation. For all we know they could have turned down the power unit for the race on Sunday!

As far as upgrades, the Silver Arrows had a subtle change to the nose which tapers more aggressively up to the specified point 150mm forward of the front wheel centreline before cutting diagonally downwards to meet the front bulkhead. The new shape encourages air passing along the side of the nose to duck underneath, head towards the splitter section and work the floor a little harder.

Red Bull

Although Red Bull already run the stub/short-tip nose, rumour is that they are producing one in the Williams form factor to increase overall downforce.

However this nose was not present in Australia as apparently it failed its crash test just before the race weekend. The stubbed noses are harder to pass the crash tests as they have a much shorter crumple zone to dissipate energy so expect nose developments to come around about China, if not Spain.

RB11 RW endplate

A late development to the RB11 in testing is this continuous leading edge rear wing endplate slot (red), which connects the horizontal louvres above the wing planes with the vertical slot at the front of the ‘plate by the rear tyre.

As individual components, these slots act as pressure equalisers at their respective positions on the endplate: the horizontal louvres reduce the pressure gradient at the wing tips for better management of the vortices the wing sheds at speed, and the vertical slot cleans up turbulence generated by the rotating rear tyre.

Joined together, however, offers a better pressure distribution across the entire endplate rather than at localised points. This will have some implications on how the car produces its upwash effect at the rear but the main purpose of doing this conjoined slot is to reduce drag rather than gain downforce. It will be interesting to see if this catches on across the grid.

New since testing were some minor revisions to the front wing flaps. The upper-most flap has been cut more aggressively downards at the inboard region and the sixth element at the outboard edge of the wing now spans across it entirely. This adjustment is aimed at finetuning the Y250 vortex and increasing the efficiency of the wing at low/medium speed. Finally, the small flick-up vane behind the cascade winglets has been split into two elements for more precise management of airflow.

Lotus

Lotus are still adjusting to life with Mercedes power, which – combined with a decent aerodynamic overhaul on the new E23 – means it could be a while before results from the new partnership come about.

Having run most of testing with botched bodywork in some minor areas, the complete rear brake duct assembly will have been a welcome gain for the team in Australia. Not only will this have improved brake temperature management but also some additional downforce downforce applied directly to the rear tyre.

The best thing about the start of the new season is that we finally get to see some pictures of the cars in the pitlane without bodywork on – there are no hoardings for the teams to hide behind! We already knew that Williams and Force India were more than likely to retain their air-to-air intercooler (IC) layout from 2014 and Lotus have also followed this pathway for this year. I still find it pretty interesting that Mercedes are the only one to use an air-to-water IC of all the supplied teams.

Also intriguing is that Lotus are continuing to use the standard dashboard on the steering wheel for 2015 (so far), despite having used the LCD display during testing. This is because, according to Ted Kravitz, the standard dashboard has a lower inertia than that of the heavier LCD display. Apparently the drivers prefer the control the light wheel offers, although the differences must be small. Still, weight saving is weight saving…

McLaren

The renewed McLaren-Honda continues to disappoint (for now), although their aero programme is beginning to show a few signs of improvement.

A number of new bits appeared across the MP4-30 including a neat pair of under-chassis vanes. These vanes are often updated to tweak the position of the Y250 vortex and manage airflow passing underneath the nose, so they have a profound effect on linking the front and rear aero structures. The new vanes have three curled elements, with upturned slots to entice airflow through them.

Work on the radically different front wing continued in Australia with plenty of flo-vis runs carried out during free practice. Both Jenson Button and Kevin Magnussen tried two options, one with extended cascades and revised upper flaps, the other without (i.e. the testing wing).

At the rear the central rear wing has been extended through the engine cover and down onto the top of the gearbox case, effectively forming a Y-lon arrangement. Although this is heavier it will provide better structural stiffness to the rear wing and prevent unwanted flexing.

Ferrari

Seeing Ferrari near the top of the speed trap figures is a welcome change over their miserable 2014. Certainly the power unit is a major step in the right direction and the fact that Sauber are also up in the points despite only a few changes to their chassis justifies this.

SF15T fw

A new front wing was brought to the final test, which they continue to use into the beginning of the season. James Allison’s design influence is starting to really show in this area whilst they have also borrowed a few design ideas from Mercedes.

The nose camera pods (1) are not as curved as the original test item following an FIA directive to make these more “minimal” for 2015. Instead they form a vertical stalk and a nicely formed dog-leg onto the nose to manage airflow over the top of the chassis.

Having produced their own unique solution of the past few years, the cascade winglets (2) have stepped towards what most of the field is using today – a twin element winglet accompanied by and r-shaped vane to turn airflow around the front tyre.

Also like other teams, a curved pressure gradient vane (3) has been placed on the wing’s endplate to generate a low pressure region behind and draw airflow from out behind the wing elements. This is not a very efficient way of producing downforce but it will help the outwash of airflow at the front of the car, which can be combined with the effect of the blown front axle.

The Mercedes W05: How it dominated in 2014 – Part 2

FRIC

Part 2 of mine and Matt Somerfield‘s eBook on how the Mercedes W05 dominated in 2014 is available to buy on the Google Play store for just over £4. It explains all the aerodynamic details of the (statistically) most successful F1 car to date and also runs over topics such as FRIC suspension (pictured above). Please purchase it – a lot of effort went into this part of the eBook so we would really appreciate your support.

Cheers!

https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Matthew_Somerfield_The_Mercedes_W05_How_it_dominat?id=_OXGBgAAQBAJ

McLaren MP4-30

MP4-30-3-4

The MP4-30 is very much a revolutionary car for McLaren. Make no mistake, with Honda coming back into Formula 1 as an exclusive supplier to the Woking-based squad, this is a big year for a team that have been busy putting the right people in the right places to succeed again. Aero-wise, Peter Prodromou’s Red Bull influence is already evident on their 2015 challenger and there are plenty of technical details to discuss around the power unit, too.

Starting at the front of the car and it is clear that the entire aerodynamic concept of the MP4-30 is miles from last year’s philosophy. This in turn sets up the rest of the car’s aero characteristics, so you can really see just how much effort has gone into this area to regain ground on the others. Continue reading

Ferrari SF15-T

SF15T

At first glance, you may be fooled into thinking that this year’s Ferrari F1 challenger is no more extraordinary than the (rather ordinary) F14 T of last year. When I first saw the launch photos I was, at first, amazed by the apparent lack of change. Look closer, however, and – especially when comparing it with the 2014 car – the SF15-T becomes more logical and sophisticated.

Ferrari were winless for the first time in two decades in 2014. Ultimately, heads rolled and total restructuring across all departments was made during the early winter. Perhaps the fruits of the upheaval won’t be apparent until 2016 or even 2017, but I get the feeling that the SF15-T is the first Ferrari to really have James Allison’s influence stamped all over it entirely. Continue reading

Williams FW37

fw37

After an incredible return to the front end of the grid, Williams hope to consolidate their recent upturn by fighting for more podiums and potentially victories in 2015. Heavy investment (that ultimately put them in debt) last year has indeed paid off as a host of new sponsors join the Martini-striped FW37, a car that looks like a good progression of last year’s concept.

After the first test in Jerez, Williams were joint top of the speed traps (along with Mercedes) despite running on lower power. A recent interview with Pat Symonds revealed that the team have aimed to retain its low-drag characteristics from last year whilst making a good step forward in downforce and early indications suggest this is exactly what they have done. Continue reading

Red Bull RB11

rb11

After reigning supreme for four years on the bounce, Red Bull experienced a rollercoaster 2014. The year started poorly but, despite their problems, they were still able to capitilise on any Mercedes blunders to pick up three victories and finish second in the Constructors’ championship.

However, a lot rides on 2015 being a successful bounce back to form as Renault have effectively jumped on board solely with Red Bull (and Toro Rosso) to create a manufacturer team. With Adrian Newey taking a more relaxed role within the team, this really could be sink or swim time –  Newey and his side man Peter Prodromou (who now works as chief aerodynamicist at McLaren) have departed, as has Sebastian Vettel, the man who the entire team was built around.

The RB11 is arguably their boldest car to leave Milton Keynes since the new regulations in 2009. Yes, it is still very much an evolution of last year’s RB10 but there is a lot more ambition about its design. Aware of the fact that Renault have to make up about 20% of their power deficit to even match Mercedes this year, the chassis has a variety of new features aimed at overthrowing the rest of the grid in terms of downforce production. Continue reading