2014 British GP Tech Highlights

Britain doesn’t tend to be a venue where vast upgrades are bolted onto the cars despite most of the teams being based a matter of minutes from Silverstone. It’s a little peculiar but the British grand prix just so happens to be at a place on the calendar where primary updates are still in the development stage. This is why we tend to see lots of parts brought to Spain/Canada, then Belgium after the summer break, and then again towards Japan for the final stint of the season.

However there were a variety of tweaks on display at the weekend, with McLaren and Red Bull being the busiest teams.

McLaren

The development rate at McLaren is pretty high lately, with an array of components making their way onto the car over the past month and a half. For Silverstone a few additional items were added to the MP4-29 to suit the track’s high speed nature.

McLaren tyre squirt slot

It has become common for slots to be placed on the floor – ahead of the rear tyre – to offset a phenomenon known as ‘tyre squirt’. This is the turbulent air that unravels off the sidewalls and impinges against the sides of the diffuser. Tyre squirt increases pressure beneath the floor which lowers downforce, getting exponentially worse as speed increases. It is therefore imperative to manage this, particularly at high speed where rear downforce is critical.

Red Bull originally introduced the ‘S’ cut slot earlier this year and McLaren have followed suit. The cut has an upward facing lip and a small guide plate that entices air above the floor to pass beneath and follow the inside of the rear tyre. Coupled with the updated vertical vane alongside (also on the floor), the newly introduced air should push the tyre squirt away from the diffuser and pass out in parallel to the tyre wall.

Toro Rosso

Having recently revealed about a “crisis” meeting regarding reliability, Toro Rosso are aiming to bring through parts which have greater endurance rather than outright performance. A rear trackrod failure caused Daniil Kvyat’s retirement in Austria and a series of exhaust related issues have plagued the outfit this year, costing them vital points.

There were some finer details added to the Austria updates and – if you read my Friday practice analysis for Richland F1 – were always likely to grab some points on Sunday.

Red Bull

It doesn’t take a genius to know that the Renault engine is still down on power. A lot of progress has been made on the driveability side and how the driver utilises the power delivery from the ERS but the ICE itself is flawed and, due to the power unit homologation regulations, cannot be changed until next season.

To compensate for their straightline speed losses Red Bull are constantly tweaking the rear of the car to reduce drag yet maintain their superior downforce levels. I was standing trackside at Maggots and Becketts (looking up towards the exit of Copse – it’s a bloody good place to watch F1 cars, trust me) on Saturday and the RB10 was brilliant. Sebastian Vettel in particular had got a great understanding of his car’s behaviour – wherever he pointed the steering wheel the car went there. Both front and rear of the car were perfectly balanced as he sweeped through the sequence of corners and not once did I see either end break loose. Aerodynamic perfection in motion.

RB10 RW Silverstone

In order to extract the rear tyre wake – built up at high speed – from the sides of the diffuser, a large set of leading edge slots were placed in the rear wing endplates. The idea behind them is to prevent the outwash of the diffuser being disrupted by the turbulent air caused by the rotating tyre.  It’s interesting that we have not seen these on the cars as often as last year as their function is quite purposeful. Whilst the 2014 Pirelli compounds behave differently (in terms of compression/sidewall flex under loading) to the 2013 tyre, we would normally assume that the slots would remain on the cars as a way of producing more downforce.

Perhaps this is a more draggy solution but something that is needed at higher speed circuits when tyre wake is greater. Having said this, these were also present in Canada – a track with few high speed corners but long straights – so it continues to puzzle me. Any suggestions on the matter would be appreciated in the comments section beneath this piece.

Another small change was made to the central rear wing pylon, which now bends over the top of the wing and attaches to the DRS actuator housing. This forms the Swan-neck arrangement that Ferrari have already been utilising. The idea is to prevent the pylon disrupting the low pressure area beneath the wing, as a conventional pylon is simply attached to the base of the wing which can cause airflow separation downstream.

Finally, the small vane that sits behind the main cascade on the front wing received its own miniature endplate to create outwash as well as upwash around the front tyre.

Ferrari

Seen but not raced in Austria, Ferrari chose to use a wider airflow conditioning vane along the sidepods. Like Red Bull, the team have considered the effects of tyre wake at high speed to improve the F14 T’s aerodynamics. A wider vane helps deflect a larger volume of wake away from the leading edge and undercut of the sidepods, improving the quality of the airflow fed through the Coke-bottle area downstream.

Force India

Force India also raced components that were trialed but not raced two weeks ago. This included a new Red Bull-esque rear wing pylon that attaches to the spine of the engine cover and the centre of the rear wing main plane. This moves away from their previous solution of two long pylons around the exhaust pipe. Structurally it should be about equal with the previous design, but the aerodynamics around the centreline of the car will have been improved in both drag reduction and downforce production.

Analysis: F1 Starter Motors

As hard as it is to believe, Formula 1 cars cannot be started from the cockpit so if you stall it on track you’re out. In a conventional starting system the battery powers a solenoid which shifts a pinion in line with the flywheel. The starter motor itself is then activated and the car starts. However in F1 this system is a weight penalty – and just so happens to be forbidden in the regulations – so an external starter is used.

The starter motor itself is a pretty robust piece of kit and I managed to get a few photos of McLaren’s at Goodwood.

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An electric motor is powered by a 24V battery at the bottom of the device, which then rotates a long shaft – probably made from steel – which is geared at the tip. It is all packed up in a neat little trolley, with wheels on the bottom alongside the battery for transportation between the garage and the grid.

The electric motor itself is not a conventional one either, more on this later.

The square carbon fibre piece acts as a support and latches onto the base of the rear crash structure as the car is started. This is to prevent a kick back into the mechanic and makes the start procedure a lot smoother as a result.

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And above is the magic button that can set over 800bhp into action. I was intrigued by the temperature stickers near the top of the starter although they could just be there because they had some spare and couldn’t be bothered to waste them!

Now let’s get onto how the start process happens…

w05 diffuser

At the back of the car is a small hole at the centre of the diffuser, or thereabouts. In previous years this has been left open and exploited for aerodynamic purposes, however in 2014 there must either be a flap covering the hole or the hole must not be visible from beneath the car (e.g. Mercedes’s vertical slot).

The hole reveals the slot for two gears which drives the flywheel. When the mechanics and engineers are satisfied with the engine, oil and water temperatures, the starter motor is inserted into the slot, the big red button is pressed and the engine and gearbox components all rotate at the same rate as the driven shaft.

There’s a slight pause before the ignition kicks in and the engine idle speed reaches around 5000-6000rpm. This is roughly five times faster than the rotating starter motor shaft, so the electric motor has a built in clutch system to prevent the shaft spinning out of control, hence why its diameter is quite big. The starter is then removed and the car is at idle state, ready to roll.

2014 Austrian GP Tech Highlights

Whilst we have not been to the Red Bull Ring for some 11 years, the track is very similar to the likes of the Hungaroring and Silverstone: a mixture of medium/high speed corners with a few heavy braking zones thrown in for good measure. It is therefore a circuit that requires slightly higher downforce levels and good driveability from the power unit due to the multitude of undulations. The track’s gradient, particularly in the traction areas, puts the a lot of lateral acceleration into the tyres which can easily cause them to overheat, hence the importance of a strong power unit.

Force India

Force India introduced their most comprehensive update of the year so far, with the second stage set to come in for Silverstone in just over a week’s time. The changes were pretty widespread and predominantly aerodynamic.

Force India mirror

Numerous amendments were made around the leading edge of the sidepod, including these new wing mirror mounts. The mirrors used to be attached directly to the top of the monocoque but they are now placed further away by a dog-leg arrangement.

This will work in conjunction with the new horizontal extension to the sidepod’s vertical vane. The trailing edge of the vane now wraps over the shoulder of the sidepod to meet the cockpit side at 90 degrees, something that Ferrari and Lotus have already been utilising. Working with the mirror mounting, the airflow passing over the sidepod will be encouraged to flow downwards towards the top of the diffuser.

The rear of the sidepods were also modified to a similar shape of those on the Red Bull, Mercedes and, more recently, Ferrari (see here). The large single outlet surrounding the exhaust is now gone in place of two single vents, one for each side. These exit above the diffuser rather than before the rear suspension components, increasing the efficiency of the undercut/Coke-bottle area of the car.

Force India nose pylons

Up front the VJM07 received a few tweaks to the front brake ducts, under-chassis turning vanes and nose. Whilst the shape of the nose itself is almost identical to its predecessor, the pylons have been completely overhauled.

In years gone by we have seen teams slowly move the mounting of the pylon as far rearward of the front wing as possible. This allows the pylons to act as turning vanes ahead of the splitter which is vital for rear downforce when the airflow reaches the diffuser further back.

Force India have decided to now do the opposite and move the pylons further forward. The new design arches much further forward but retains its curved trailing edge. The change will have been aimed at taking advantage of the air passing beneath the nose, forcing a slightly larger volume downwards towards the leading edge of the floor. This is an interesting design manoeuvre and one that we should keep an eye on as the season progresses.

Ferrari

There was a sense of disappointment that the team couldn’t use the updates brought to Canada due to high temperatures, but modifications were made and they were used to full effect in Austria. These were coupled to small adjustments to already-existing components such as the swan-neck rear wing pylon introduced in Spain, removing the winglet element above the exhaust in favour of a small lip to entice the exhaust plume upwards.

McLaren

Austria represented the second stage of updates for the MP4-29 after a steady stream had made their way to the car since Spain. These changes, however, marked an overhaul change in aerodynamics around the front of the car and the team looked in much stronger shape as a result.

McLaren FW Austria

The most visual change of all was a new front wing, which departs from their long standing philosophy of using the maximum surface area available for the upper flaps. The flaps have now been thinned slightly and offer a more sinuous surface to the oncoming airflow. They wrap around the modified main plane which now features an arched trailing edge to induce a stronger vortex along the Y250 axis, shielding the leading edge of the floor and sidepod from troublesome tyre wake.

Highlighted in the image above are the new cascade elements. The main winglet is much smaller than the outgoing model and no longer includes the small vane on top. A larger vane, however, has been added alongside, much akin to that seen on the Mercedes. These alterations are designed to send airflow around the front tyre in a more efficient manner.

The front brake ducts and under-chassis turning vanes immediately behind the wing have also been addressed to, working in conjunction with the changes made ahead.

Finally, the rear diffuser now features a more squared off edge, increasing the volume and outwashing effect. Additionally, 5 pairs of vortex generators were added to the central section of the diffuser to encourage airflow to remain attached to the upper surfaces and produce more upwash. Red Bull have already been exploiting the use of such devices in this area already this year.

Overall, it feels as if McLaren are slowly moving away from their traditional design philosophy and moving with the times.

Toro Rosso

This was an important weekend for Red Bull and Toro Rosso and certainly the latter team produced, particularly through Daniil Kvyat who still qualified 7th despite losing DRS.

STR FW Austria

Interestingly, Toro Rosso have approached their new front wing design where McLaren have departed it. Offering a large surface area, peak downforce should be much better than the outgoing wing at a cost of consistency. The new, wider cascade winglet supports a small turning vane that generates small vortices heading around the front tyre. A small edge has been added to one of the upper flaps to condition the Y250 vortex produced by the main plane.

The rear wing, sidepods and under-chassis turning vanes were also subject to change, the latter component following the latest trend of a 3 element design attached to a small footplate beneath.

Bloodhound SSC – Cockpit launch day

I was invited to see the unveiling of the world’s fastest car’s cockpit – Bloodhound SSC. On 13 June, I drove up to their facility in Bristol on a brilliantly warm, sunny day – a healthy revision break to say the least. I also took the opportunity to bring a very good friend, who also wants to take a career path similar to mine. We both love engineering, motoring in particular (obviously), so it would have been unfair to not let him come given that the opportunity was there.

And he had a DSLR camera, so win-win!

I was, understandably, rather excited. I had never been to such an event before and – whilst it wasn’t a surprise – it was striking to see the media attention the launch had drawn in: Sky TV were there, BBC News, a variety of motoring journalists and a few recognisable faces from the F1 world, and I hadn’t even walked through the doors of Unit 3, Avonbridge Trading Estate. Parking was scarce but we squeezed in behind an Audi – we were one of the last to arrive.

However the event had not officially started and we were bustled inside by Jules Tipler, who did an excellent job for the Bloodhound team in gathering everyone together for the occasion and who also allowed me to bring a guest, so big thank you to him. Such was the final flurry of arrivals that we didn’t even get to pick up a nice little ‘PRESS’ badge (although we got one at the end to feel important!).

We then passed through a small lobby – featuring a brilliant model of the Bloodhound itself – and into the main part of the building itself…

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Immediately, the amount of light and space took me back. It’s a fantastic atmosphere to work in and the place was alive with excited murmurs and camera clicks. Up on the wall behind the image taken above sits a full 100kg Rolex clock, gleaming in the sunlight. Talk about sponsor perks…

I was then greeted by fellow motoring journalist Daniel Puddicombe who had already been inside for at least an hour, so I could imagine how annoying it was for him to watch us wander about and take in the factory whilst he had already seen it all!

And there, taking centre stage, was the car itself. It was far lower, narrower and shorter than I had anticipated. It peacefully sat in amongst the hubbub of media activity which, ironically, hardly struck the impression of a 1000mph powerhouse. Not necessarily a bad thing, as it invites you in to gaze at its meticulous detail.

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Everyone was then gathered into about 40 or 50 seats which faced 3 TVs and a huge speaker stack for a presentation about the car. The talk was spearheaded by Chris Fairhead, Mark Chapman and, the driver himself, Andy Green. Chapman’s talk in particular struck a particular chord with me. Above you can see an image of what the team describe as the “Goat’s Head” – the machined 7075 alloy structure that critical components such as the suspension, brakes and hubs all mount to.

The reason behind its name is also interesting. The team stuck a virtual block of 7075 into a computer simulation software, considering the load requirements and minimum dimensions needed for the component to withstand and fit within the confines of the front bulkhead. The computer then erases all the unnecessary material to form as small-a-shape as possible. What came out was something that appeared to look like an animal’s skull, hence it was dubbed as the Goat’s head.

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The statistics about this piece are absolutely staggering. In CAD form above it looks very complex but in raw form it’s beautiful simplicity. It is composed of three individual pieces that originally started at a total mass of 924kg, yet is now just 68kg thanks to the computer software mentioned above. It took 151 days to produce and can withstand about 30 tonnes of loading at top speed. Rest assured, Andy Green can have total confidence that the car will point in the right direction.

After the presentation – which also included a 100 decibel sound blast from the speaker stack to attempt to represent the cockpit noise Andy would be experiencing – we got to ask a few questions before taking a proper look round. I was curious as to whether the team had to develop a new tyre for runway testing as the Bloodhound is far quicker than its predecessor, Thrust SSC. The simple answer to that: no. They requested Dunlop to reproduce the tyres they used on the Thrust but to higher, modern standards.

As you’d expect we took plenty of pictures as we looked round so here are all the good ones with brief explanations of what each item is:

The cockpit's canopy. A lovely blend of various carbon fibre weaves and 50mm acrylic.

The cockpit’s canopy. A lovely blend of various carbon fibre weaves and 50mm acrylic.

Air travelling too fast into the jet engine immediately behind will choke it, so the cockpit's job is quite extraordinary...

Air travelling too fast into the jet engine immediately behind will choke it, so the cockpit’s job is quite extraordinary…

It generates a series of shockwaves at high speed to slow air down from 1000mph to 600mph in just over a metre.

It generates a series of shockwaves at high speed to slow air down from 1000mph to 600mph in just over a metre.

The wasted energy generates a huge amount of noise, estimated close to the 120-140dB region.

The wasted energy generates a huge amount of noise, estimated at close to the 120-140dB region audible inside in the cockpit.

Here's the star of the show: the cockpit. The blue interior lighting and three displays give it a sense of futurism and quality.

Here’s the star of the show: the cockpit. The blue interior lighting and three displays give it a sense of futurism and quality.

There are 3 main displays and a series of switches to control the MGT engine (that acts as a fuel pump) the jet engine itself and the rocket fuel.

There are 3 main displays and a series of switches to control the MGT engine (that acts as a fuel pump) the jet engine itself and the rocket fuel.

The steering wheel is 3D printed titanium and is shaped around a mould of Andy Green's hands. There are 6 buttons and two triggers on the back.

The steering wheel is 3D printed titanium and is shaped around a mould of Andy Green’s hands. There are 6 buttons and two triggers on the back.

The central screen is, obviously, most important. It displays speed, time and wheel loads. Another neat feature is that there are small coloured diamonds that move around the speedometer to indicate when to ignite the rocket fuel, pull the parachute and other processes. It's a very neat, well laid out system.

The central screen is, obviously, most important. It displays speed, time and wheel loads. Another neat feature is that there are small coloured diamonds that move around the speedometer to indicate when to ignite the rocket fuel, pull the parachute and other processes. It’s a very neat, well laid out system.

As a back up, Rolex have provided timing and speedometer equipment that run off their own battery and GPS system, just in case. The two levers to the left deploy the two parachutes via a cable should the electronics fail.

As a back up, Rolex have provided timing and speedometer equipment that run off their own battery and GPS system, just in case. The two levers to the left deploy the two parachutes via a cable should the electronics fail.

It's a bit blurry, but these are the two pedals inside the cockpit. The left applies a set of 4 AP Racing brakes that can be used from 200mph downwards and the right is the "go faster" pedal.

It’s a bit blurry, but these are the two pedals inside the cockpit. The left applies a set of 4 AP Racing brakes that can be used from 200mph downwards and the right is the “go faster” pedal.

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I was quite confused about the seat, because there was one lying around! This must be the carbon fibre "backbone" beneath the moulded top surface that was inside the cockpit, I think.

I was quite confused about the seat, because there was one lying around! This must be the carbon fibre “backbone” beneath the moulded top surface that was inside the cockpit, I think.

High Test Peroxide rocket fuel tank, with a capacity of 1000 litres, made by ABC Stainless Ltd. The whole lot will be empty in about 17 seconds for each run.

High Test Peroxide rocket fuel tank, with a capacity of 1000 litres, made by ABC Stainless Ltd. The whole lot will be empty in about 17 seconds for each run.

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Blueprints and a few parts of the HTP tank's mounting frame were also out on display.

Blueprints and a few parts of the HTP tank’s mounting frame were also out on display.

Blueprints of the monocoque and the "airbox" jet engine intake above.

Blueprints of the monocoque and the “airbox” jet engine intake above.

 

The fuel pump system for the engine, that is used to pump the jet engine fuel. Cosworth were the original suppliers but backed out after they were bought out, so the team got hold of an MGT motor instead.

The fuel pump system for the engine, that is used to pump the jet engine fuel. Cosworth were the original suppliers but backed out after they were bought out, so the team got hold of an MGT motor instead.

Hence the Cosworth labelling!

Hence the Cosworth labelling!

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There are two sections to the Bloodhound's chassis: upper and lower. These were recently united and the car is finally coming together.

There are two sections to the Bloodhound’s chassis: upper and lower. These were recently united and the car is finally coming together.

The jet engine lies in the upper section, fed by the huge air intake. The rocket sits lower down and exits beneath.

The jet engine lies in the upper section, fed by the huge air intake. The rocket sits lower down and exits beneath.

There are about 11,000 rivets that seal these sheets of titanium onto the upper chassis, all of which are hand drilled and take 5 minutes each.

There are about 11,000 rivets that seal these sheets of titanium onto the upper chassis, all of which are hand drilled and take 5 minutes each.

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The gap here is for the air brake system. If you have ever spotted the air brakes on their website, they have numerous holes cut into them. This is because the shear turbulence created behind when they activate would rip off the rear suspension, so compromises had to be made.

The gap here is for the air brake system. If you have ever spotted the air brakes on their website, they have numerous holes cut into them. This is because the shear turbulence created behind when they activate would rip off the rear suspension, so compromises had to be made.

The jet engine fuel tank sits roughly in the middle of the car just ahead of the rocket. The MGT engine then sits right just ahead of that against the monocoque and the rocket fuel is housed within the monocoque itself. All in all, it's a tight squeeze but its done in an elegant way.

The jet engine fuel tank sits roughly in the middle of the car just ahead of the rocket. The MGT engine then sits right just ahead of that against the monocoque and the rocket fuel is housed within the monocoque itself. All-in-all, it’s a tight squeeze but it’s done in an elegant way.

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The rocket fuel is refilled via the small removable panel just before one of the air intakes that flank each side of the car.

The rocket fuel is refilled via the small removable panel just before one of the air intakes that flank each side of the car.

Amazingly, the MGT engine doesn't even need a radiator of its own. It sits within an ice jacket that is only cooled by the air passing through the inlets.

Amazingly, the MGT engine doesn’t even need a radiator of its own. It sits within an ice jacket that is only cooled by the air passing through the inlets.

The nose cone assembly is another meticulously crafted piece. I wish I had asked to pick it up but it looked incredibly lightweight.

The nose cone assembly is another meticulously crafted piece. I wish I had asked to pick it up but it looked incredibly lightweight.

Various bits and pieces were out on display, including suspension springs, front wheel hubs and brake components.

Various bits and pieces were out on display, including suspension springs, front wheel hubs and brake components.

The Eurofighter EUROJET EJ200 engine was also out on display. Surprisingly this is under a seventh of the total mass of the car before it sets off at just over one tonne. The onboard fuel is close to 3 tonnes.

The Eurofighter EUROJET EJ200 engine was also out on display. Surprisingly this is under a seventh of the total mass of the car before it sets off at just over one tonne. The onboard fuel is close to 3 tonnes.

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We then spoke to design engineer, Mark Elvin. He was really insightful and answered any questions we had. His background was, in my opinion, very interesting. Mark only completed one year of Sixth Form but opted to do a 4 year apprenticeship that then led him to work for Williams F1.

We discussed about A-Levels and university and that, in Mark’s opinion, getting to such a high level of education doesn’t prove much in terms of practical ability. We also found it odd that despite the demand for engineers increasing, the grades required to do engineering at university have also shot up. Listening about his experience in the industry and how he got there gave me a new view upon education as a whole. Should my exam results not be as good as I want them to be, there are still other options out there. So if you are reading this, Mark, thank you!

I hope you enjoyed this post and please leave a comment if you have any questions about Bloodhound SSC. I’d like to thank those who organised the event and I feel very lucky to have gone. I hope this post gives you a greater insight into the fastest car and, more impressively, fastest vehicle ever built in the world.

2014 Canadian GP Tech Highlights

The Canadian Grand Prix never fails to produce and 2014 was no exception. As always is the challenge at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve, brakes were a critical area where a number of teams were caught out. The MGU-K does most of the reverse torque on the rear axle this year so teams have been running far smaller rear brakes – discs and calipers. This means that, when we get a situation such as the MGU-K failing on the Mercedes, the rear brakes are put under a lot more stress and fatigue quickly. Coupled with the low downforce packages making it difficult to stop the cars from high speed and high track temperatures, you’ve got yourself a recipe for disaster… Continue reading

Announcements…

Hello readers,

I have a few announcements I would like to make heading into the summer! Firstly I have a new Facebook page so could you please give it a ‘like’ if you can as I would thoroughly appreciate it – facebook.com/thewptformula.

Secondly, I will be attending the Bloodhound SSC cockpit unveil on June 13, so I’ll be getting lots of photos and analysing them for you. This will include the whole car and the factory as a whole. And who knows, I may even be allowed to sit in it… Maybe not.

Thirdly, I am very pleased to announce that I will be covering the Formula E test on July 3 at Donington Park courtesy of Richland F1/Rumble Strip News, so I’ll hopefully grab a driver or two to talk about how the new cars feel to drive, downforce levels, tyres etc. Plus I’m even bringing a camera to take lovely shots of tech bits and pieces. You can catch all the coverage on Rumble Strip News and on this very blog.

I may have more news to come but for now it’s only a possibility…

Thank you for continuing to read my blog, because without you I wouldn’t have a hope in going to these events. I can only say that I really appreciate you coming to this website and I hope that it’s useful to you!

Will

Analysis: Flow Visualisation Paint

flow viz

Pre-2009, it was fairly uncommon to see the cars covered in Flow Visualisation Paint (or Flo-Viz). However McLaren were in a spot of bother with their MP4-24 and were taking every measure to raise their competitiveness and I distinctly remember the brightly coloured stuff plastered over the car numerous times in winter testing. Since then flo-viz has been a common feature during testing and even during free practice on a Grand Prix weekend. This boils down to the fact that testing is limited and – with the car’s aerodynamics becoming evermore complex – analysis of exactly how airflow is behaving as the car goes round on track is essential to development.

We hear a lot about wind-tunnel correlation and teams complaining that their car is not performing as it should compared to the figures they produce in the factory, and these statements are all very relevant in today’s formula. Although some wind-tunnels allow some degree of artificial pitch and yaw movements, most teams will be testing their scale models in a straight line to oncoming airflow. They can turn the wheels to the airflow in a bid to understand airflow behaviour during a corner, but you then have to take into account the load on the tyre, the sidewall compression, bumps, tiny driver inputs, air temperature… The list goes on! So what’s the best tool for on-track aerodynamic measurements? Pitot tubes quite possibly, but a flo-viz is another brilliant method. Continue reading