Tag Archives: technical regulations

Analysis: 2014 – Braking

Although it has not cropped up extensively in the media, braking (in particular brake bias and control) will be an important design consideration for 2014. This is down to the introduction of the new power units, which – due to the additional recovery power of the MGU-K – makes the bias difficult to adjust and control.

Current Braking System and KERS

In this section of this post I am going to break (pardon the pun) down the key characteristics of the current (2009-2013) braking system and how each component affects each other.

Since 2009 (excluding 2010), Formula 1 has utilised the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) that increases the efficiency of the braking system, transferring the previously lost energy to a battery. This energy can then be used to provide an additional boost of power at the driver’s disposal for 6.67 seconds per lap. The KERS harvests 60kW of power, which equates to about 80bhp – about the same power as a small family hatchback car.

It does this via a Motor Generator Unit (MGU). As the driver brakes, the engine drives the generator of the MGU which acts as a resistive force to the driveshaft connected to the wheels. The MGU transfers the energy recovered from the generator to the battery. When the driver pushes the KERS button the energy is sent back to the motor of the MGU, adding power to the engine.

Image via racecar-engineering.com

Image via racecar-engineering.com

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Analysis: 2014 – Power Units

Image copyright Renault Sport F1

Image copyright Renault Sport F1

2014 presents the biggest change to Formula 1 cars since the late 1980s: gone are the naturally aspirated 2.4 litre V8 engines and in their place a 1.6 litre V6 turbo is introduced. To make matters more complex the engine manufacturers must apply complex energy recovery systems to boost power output, reduce fuel consumption and further reduce the number of engines allowed per driver per season to lower costs. The idea behind this is to bring F1 technology more in line with road car development.

The last time turbo power was in F1 was during the 1988 season. Honda dominated this era with McLaren, using a 1.5 litre V6 in the famous MP4/4 before being replaced by a 3.5 litre naturally aspirated engines for the following season. Technology has moved on drastically since then. The 2014 power units have the potential to decide the world championship such is their importance. The manufacturer who meets their side of the bargain will have a huge upper hand on the opposition. They are therefore the most likely component to give the biggest performance factor.

What are Power Units?

The engineers no longer refer to the next generation of F1 powertrain as “engines”. They are now dubbed as “power units”. The reason behind this being that the powertrain is made up of more than just a combustion engine/turbo, there are more complex elements involved from this season onwards. The recovery systems on board will generate enough energy to supply plenty of extra kick via an electric motor, with the additional power output mapped into the engine system to provide more performance at optimal stages of the lap (i.e. the driver will no longer have to push a button to use the additional power available).

Facts & Figures

Let’s get into the numbers, starting with the turbo-charged engine itself.

  • Cylinders: 6
  • Capacity: 1.6 litres
  • Power: 600bhp*
  • Maximum rpm: 15,000
  • Maximum fuel flow rate: 100kg per hour at 12,000-15,000rpm

*Estimated figure. Rumours of some manufacturers extracting a higher power output (notably Mercedes) at this stage of development.

Energy Recovery Systems (ERS):

  • Power output: Additional 161bhp for 33.3 seconds per lap
  • Maximum harvest energy: 2MJ per lap
  • Maximum energy output: 4MJ per lap
  • Battery weight: Limited to 20-25kg (must be placed beneath the fuel cell as a single unit)

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Analysis: Turbochargers

In the run up to my next post on 2014 – the power units – I decided to do a brief post on turbochargers (or turbos) as this will be the backbone of next year’s engines. 2014 sees the introduction of 1.6 litre V6 turbo engines, replacing the naturally aspirated 2.4 litre V8. This post should be beneficial, both for you and myself, as to how the turbocharger works in conjunction with the engine and why it is more efficient than a naturally aspirated engine. So let’s jump in…

What is a turbocharger?

A turbocharger is basically a small turbine that acts as a pump. The turbo itself can vary in weight as it also varies in size, however a typical road car unit can weigh in the region of 15-25kg. The mass of the entire system can be weigh as much as 30kg or even more.

The turbo is composed of two channels: the exhaust inlet and the compressor inlet. Each channel contains one section of a turbine. In the image below you can see a cutaway of the turbo unit, showing the turbine running through the two channels. The turbine rotors are connected via a shaft on a bearing system, with oil passing through the system to provide lubrication.

How does it work?

In a naturally aspirated engine fuel and oxygen undergo combustion in the cylinders, creating exhaust gases at the end of this process. The gases then pass through the exit valve, through the manifold and out of the car via the exhaust exit pipe. Installing a turbo is a great way of boosting a car’s efficiency and performance as it takes advantage of these wasted gases.

After the exhaust manifold a turbo unit can be put into the network, passing the exhaust gases into one of the channels which contains one section of the turbine. After the exhaust manifold, the pipe network converges exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe, so there is quite a large volume of gas passing through the pipe at a relatively high velocity. Such is the energy of these gases that they can drive the turbine in the turbo unit.

As the two turbine rotors are connected via a shaft, when one is turned so does the other. When the exhaust gases pass over one of the rotors – turning turbine in the process – this in turn spins the rotor on the compressor side. Once the gases have passed over the rotor in the exhaust channel they are then discharged, sent to the exhaust pipe and exit out of the engine.

The compressor channel rotor is open to the surrounding air. The spinning motion of the rotor generated by the energy from the exhaust gases forces air into the compressor inlet. This air is then sent through the channel along another pipe network to the air intake valve in the cylinder via an intercooler. Additional airflow combined with the fuel results in a better combustion and therefore extracts more power out of the engine.

As more exhaust gases come through the system as engine speed increases, the speed of the turbine also increases. In some performance cars the turbine can spin at over 240,000rpm although next year’s F1 V6 turbos will be limited to 125,000rpm.

A 7-step illustration of how a turbo works

A 7-step illustration of how a turbo works


Exhaust gases can be in excess of 900 degrees Celsius as they enter the turbo, so building the system out of heat resistant materials is essential. If the heat from the gases is not dealt with correctly, there are a number of issues that can have an impact on the performance of the car, including reducing the life-span of the turbo unit itself.

The air can rise to temperatures of up to 250 degrees Celsius as it passes through the compressor intake of the turbo. Incredibly, this temperature rise is mostly due to the compression of ambient pressure airflow into a high pressure region inside that is the compressor intake pipework. Other than that, the shear heat from the exhaust gases passing through the exhaust channel in the neighbouring chamber also heats up the air slightly.

To extract maximum power from the engine, cooler air is favoured over hot air as it is denser. Denser air is packed with more oxygen molecules and therefore more efficient combustion occurs within the combustion chamber, providing more power.

How do you cool 250C air before it reaches the cylinder? Using an intercooler. An intercooler is, effectively, a miniature radiator placed between the compressor intake and the air intake valve for the cylinder. This reduces the temperature of the compressor intake air, allowing for a greater power output as fuel burns more efficiently.

There are two types of intercoolers: air-to-air and air-to-water. Air-to-air refers to oncoming airflow passing through the intercooler, cooling the hotter airflow – that originates from the compressor intake of the turbo unit – on its way to the cylinder. Air-to-water is slightly different in that oncoming airflow is used to cool a water bath, in which lies the pipe that passes hot compressor intake air to the cylinder.

Another small consequence of hot air from the compressor intake is engine knocking. If hot air enters the combustion chamber the fuel can ignite, even if the spark – produced by the spark plug – is inactive. This causes engine knocking which can cause cylinder head and piston failure within the engine although this is only occurs at extreme air temperatures.

An intercooler mounted ahead of the engine radiator on a road car

An intercooler mounted ahead of the engine radiator on a road car

Waste gates

Performance turbo engines are slightly less predictable to drive than naturally aspirated engines as the turbo provides a “boost”. At low engine rpm, little exhaust gases are being produced and therefore the turbine rotates much slower. This reduces the air intake into the cylinder as the exhaust flow is providing little energy to drive the turbine. As engine speed increases, the turbine rotates faster and therefore power output is almost exponential.

If a large volume of exhaust gases are travelling through the turbo system, it can over-boost the engine by spinning the turbine too quickly. This can be particularly problematic in wet conditions as there can be power surges that can catch the driver out. To reduce this problem, the turbo is fitted with a waste gate. A waste gate is a valve that allows the exhaust to bypass the turbo once a certain pressure is met within the system. This excess exhaust then travels into the exhaust pipe and exits the engine.

Having a waste gate allows a smaller rotor to be used in the exhaust channel of the turbo unit. This is because a large volume of exhaust gases needs a larger turbine to not over-boost the engine at high rpm. A smaller rotor allows maximum power output to still be achieved whilst also reducing weight. Engine response is also increased as a smaller rotor has a smaller inertia, allowing the turbine to accelerate more quickly, driving air through the compressor and into the cylinders at a faster rate.

Low engine rpm and/or larger rotors can cause “turbo-lag” as there are not enough exhaust gases to drive the turbine, reducing power output. One of Ayrton Senna’s most renowned driving techniques was to blip the throttle mid-corner, passing exhaust gases through the system, spooling the turbo and therefore reducing turbo-lag as he exited the corner.

An open waste gate valve next to the exhaust channel turbine

An open waste gate valve next to the exhaust channel turbine

Next year’s F1 turbos will not include a waste gate. More on this in my 2014 power units post later this week.

Analysis: 2014 – General Summary

2014 side & plan

Although I have started my in depth posts on 2014, some viewers have suggested that I do a quick, bitesize summary post. This will be a short overview of the changes in the technical regulations for next season, informing you of all the facts and figures that you will want/need to know before the season commences in Australia, four months away.

For further information on any of items below, simply click on the sub-titles below for a more in depth analysis! Continue reading

Analysis: 2014 – Aerodynamics | Rear Wing

In my second part of my analysis of the 2014 formula, I shall be looking at the changes that are being made to the rear wing. Other than the rear wing itself there have also been some key modifications to the regulations to try to remove downforce from the cars, such as the reduction of the beam wing.

Rear Wing Profile

From next year, the technical regulations state that the rear wing profile must be slightly shallower. The mainplane of the wing must now lie 750mm above the reference plane when previously it was 730mm. This follows in accordance with the FIA wanting to reduce drag and downforce from the cars, which will in turn create a slight improvement in fuel efficiency.

Red = 2013; Yellow = 2014

Red = 2013; Yellow = 2014


The 2013 DRS regulations allow the top flap to open between 10mm and 50mm when activated. For 2014 this will be increase with the opening allowed to stretch from 10mm up to 65mm.

It is also worth noting that the Drag Reduction Device (DRD) will still be allowed next year, hence the ongoing development from the teams, particularly Lotus, Mercedes and Sauber. Continue reading

Analysis: 2014 – Aerodynamics | Front Wing

My interpretation of what we could see next year

My interpretation of what we could see next year

One team engineer described the 2014 regulation changes as a “tidal wave” compared to the “ripple” that were the 2009 rule changes, and we all knew how drastically different the cars looked aesthetically and how the racing changed, too. Most of the challenge comes from developing the new “power units” – a 750bhp V6 turbo engine with additional recovery systems (recovering heat under braking and heat energy from the turbocharger) to provide a 160bhp boost for 33 seconds per lap (more on this in a later post). Aerodynamically, teams face another task of providing ample cooling to the power units while also maintaining performance, a challenge made harder by new limits being applied to the crucial elements that provide a significant amount of downforce.

As 2013 developments have become scarce, I have decided to start posting 2014 articles a bit earlier than planned. Analysis: 2014 – Aerodynamics aims to look at different aerodynamic solutions for next year’s cars as a number of rule changes come in. This first installment will cover the new front wing, front bulkhead/chassis and nose layout.

The front wing will receive a bit of a trim next year, reducing its width from 1800mm to 1650mm – 75mm lopped off each side. 75mm is quite a substantial amount, so the engineers will have to rethink the way the airflow is managed around the front tyres.

front wing comparison

The above image shows what the front wing will look like relative to the current wing (dashed lines). One debate that has cropped up on forums lately has been the idea of reverting back to an “inwash” endplate, pinching the profile of the ‘plate inwards and passing airflow inside of the front tyre rather than than around it like we currently see (via an “outwash” endplate curving outwards). The endplate is beyond halfway of the tyre tread so I would assume that it is still slightly more efficient to produce an outwash endplate. Teams will want to continue with this design as they have been using it since 2009 (when the current regulations came in), so the car’s aerodynamic philosophy will be based around the aerostructures of the outwash endplate. Continue reading